Main documents in EUROPE

Government, inter and supra national organizations are paying attention to cryptocurrencies and bitcoin.

The scope of the analysis varies, but the analysis of the opportunities and the risks of the cryptocurrencies is a never-ending task because the hybrid, polymorphic and virtual nature of this technology is challenging the actual knowledge.

Even if we are able to fully understand cryptocurrencies, there are emerging further issues as Smart Contract, Internet-of-Things, and Blockchain that are stressing our ability to comprehend and legally analyze.

In Europe we can list the main documents to read to have an idea what is happening.

  1. European Parliament, Draft Report on Virtual Currencies, [IT] [WBM]February 2016
  2. Bank for International Settlements, Paper on Digital Currencies, November 2015.
  3. Bank of England, Economics of digital currencies, (Q3/2014).
  4. European Banking Authority, Opinion on Virtual currencies, June 2014.
  5. European Central Bank, Analysis of Virtual currency schemes. February 2015.
  6. European Commission, Action Plan to strengthen the fight against the financing of terrorism, 2 February 2016,
  7. European Commission, VAT gap in the EU of May 2015,
  8. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Digital agenda of virtual currencies, 2015
  9. European Council, Conclusions on the fight against the financing of terrorism, 12 February 2016,
  10. European Court of Justice, Judgement on the VAT Treatment of a Virtual Currency Exchange, (C-264/14),22 October 2015
  11. European Court of Justice, Opinion of Advocate-General Kokott (C-264/14), 16 July 2015,
  12. ESMA, Consultation on Investment using virtual currencies or distributed ledger technology, July 2015,
  13. European Parliament Research Service, Briefing On Bitcoin Market, Economics And Regulation, 2014
  14. Europol, Changes in modus operandi of Islamic State terrorist attacks, 18 January 2016.
  15. FATF-GAFI, Report on Virtual Currencies, June 2014,
  16. OECD, The Bitcoin Question – currency versus trust-less transfer technology, 2014
  17. IMF Staff, Discussion Note on Virtual Currencies and Beyond, January 2016,
  18. UK Government Office for Science, Distributed Ledger Technology: beyond block chain, 2016
  19. HM Treasury UK, Digital Currencies: response to call for information, March 2015.
  20. Sénat de la France, La régulation à l’épreuve de l’innovation : les pouvoirs publics face au développement des monnaies virtuelles, Juillet 2014

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